It is best to structure your essay according to key themes. Themes are illustrated and developed through a number of points supported by evidence. Choose relevant points only, ones that most reveal the theme or help to make a convincing and interesting argument. Don't make the mistake of writing all the information you know regarding a particular topic. You need to be concise, and clearly articulate your argument.
A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences. Be clear why each point is is relevant to the argument.
It would be useful at the beginning of each paragraph if you explicitly outlined the theme being discussed. Try not to overuse quotations in your essays. It is more appropriate to use original content to demonstrate your understanding.
Psychology is a science so you must support your ideas with evidence not your own personal opinion. If you are discussing a theory or research study make sure you cite the source of the information.
Bowlby claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months, i.
Maslow stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fullfil the next one, and so on. As a general rule make sure there is at least one citation i. Remember to answer the essay question. Underline the key words in the essay title. Don't make the mistake of simply writing everything you know of a particular topic, be selective. Each paragraph in your essay should contribute to answering the essay question.
In simple terms this means outlining the strengths and limitations of a theory or research study. Is the sample biased or can we generalize the findings to other populations? What are the strengths and limitations of the method used and data obtained?
Be careful to ensure that any methodological criticisms are justified and not trite. Rather than hunting for weaknesses in every study; only highlight limitations which make you doubt the conclusions that the authors have drawn — e. Refer to debates such as nature or nurture, reductionism vs. For example, would they agree or disagree with a theory or the findings of the study? If research is biased towards men or women it does not provide a clear view of the behavior that has been studied.
A dominantly male perspective is known as an androcentric bias. The main criterion is that benefits must outweigh costs. But benefits are almost always to humans and costs to animals. Animal research also raises the issue of extrapolation. It is very important to elaborate on your evaluation.
Don't just write a shopping list of brief one or two sentence evaluation points. Instead make sure you expand on your points, remember, quality of evaluation is most important than quantity. Are they positive or negative? Point It is argued that psychoanalytic therapy is only of benefit to an articulate, intelligent, affluent minority.
Explain Because psychoanalytic therapy involves talking and gaining insight, and is costly and time-consuming, it is argued that it is only of benefit to an articulate, intelligent, affluent minority. Evidence suggests psychoanalytic therapy works best if the client is motivated and has a positive attitude.
Furthermore, the levels of dependency of depressed clients mean that transference is more likely to develop. It is often best to write your introduction when you have finished the main body of the essay, so that you have a good understanding to the topic area. When you engage in critical writing you are developing your own academic voice within your subject.
They suggest that the academic voice will involve:. Succeeding with your doctorate. Try to get into the habit of writing critically, by making sure that you read critically, and that you include critique in your writing.
It can be tempting to string together quotes to support an argument, feeling that the more quotes you include, the stronger your argument. It is important, however, to remember that you also need to interpret the quotes to the reader, and to explain their relevance, discuss their validity, and show how they relate to other evidence. You can use paragraphs to make a clear and visual separation between descriptive writing and critical analysis, by switching to a new paragraph when you move from description to critical writing, and vice versa.
This can help in:. A paragraph break can provide a brief pause for your readers within a longer argument; giving them the opportunity to make sure they are keeping up with your reasoning. Paragraphs that are overly long can require readers to hold too much in their mind at once, resulting in their having to re-read the material until they can identify the point you are making. You can also use paragraphs to push yourself to include critical writing alongside descriptive writing or referencing, by considering each paragraph almost as an essay in miniature.
Within each paragraph you would:. A certain amount of descriptive writing is essential, particularly in the earlier parts of the essay or assignment or dissertation. Beyond that, however, there is a danger that too much descriptive writing will use up valuable words from your word limit, and reduce the space you have for the critical writing that will get you higher marks. A useful habit to get into is to make sure that, if you describe some evidence relevant to your argument, you need then to explain to the reader why it is relevant.
The logic of your explanation contributes to the critical component of your writing. So, a sentence or two might describe and reference the evidence, but this is not enough in itself. The next few sentences need to explain what this evidence contributes to the argument you are making.
This may feel like duplication at first, or that you are explaining something that is obvious, but it is your responsibility to ensure that the relevance of the evidence is explained to the reader; you should not simply assume that the reader will be following the same logic as you, or will just work out the relevance of the quote or data you have described. So far this study guide has considered the detail of what you write. The other key element in critical writing is the overall structure of your piece of writing.
For maximum effectiveness, your writing needs to have a line, or lines of argument running through it from the Introduction to the Conclusion. Just as you have used paragraphs on a micro scale to present your critical writing, so you need to consider the ordering of those paragraphs within the overall structure. The aim is to lead your readers carefully through the thread of your argument, to a well-supported conclusion.
The author refers to the available evidence, but also evaluates the validity of that evidence, and assesses what contribution it can realistically make to the debate.
You can see how the author is considering the available evidence, but also the limitations on that evidence, and will be taking all of this into account in drawing conclusions. It is always worth taking a critical look at your own writing before submitting it for assessment. The kinds of questions that might be useful to ask at that stage are:. While a certain amount of description is necessary to set the context for your analysis, the main characteristic of academic writing is its critical element.
A useful way to check this balance in your own writing is to use two coloured pens and to mark in the margin whether the lines are descriptive or critical. The balance will change at different points, but you need to make sure there is enough of the colour that represents critical writing.
A critical read through your own writing may reveal gaps in your logic, which you can rectify before you submit it for the critique of others.
29 rows · Looking at the essay question in close detail will help you to identify the topic and ‘directive words’ (Dhann, ), which instruct you how to answer the question. Understanding the meaning of these directive words is a vital first step in producing your essay.
I: Purpose of the Essay. This lecture will guide you toward the draft of your Critical Evaluation Essay, and along the way, ask you to complete two assignments. In the "Critical Evaluation" essay, you will be writing a review -- supporting a judgment -- on the fiction stories in Blues Vision.
A critical evaluation of a subject will warrant an assertive essay response that details the extent to which you agree with a set of findings, a theory, or an argument. The key to tackling these question words is providing ample evidence to support your claims. Critical Evaluation Essay Writing Help Critical evaluation essay is a type of an academic paper in which students must present their opinion about the value and quality of movies, books, sporting events, restaurants and etc.
A critical evaluation essay involves writing about the quality and value of something, such as a book, movie, sporting event, restaurant or product. But starting a critical evaluation essay isn’t just about presenting your opinion. It’s also about drawing the reader in so he will want to read. Critically evaluating something requires that the person be able to exercise their sense of reason, employing multiple skills for arguing and demonstrating various points. Critical thinking is often synonymous to active learning. Active learning contrasts with passive learning in that it requires.